The Interview

Aug. 25th, 2016 12:30 am
[syndicated profile] rollingaroundinmyhed_feed

Posted by Dave Hingsburger

We stopped for a cup of tea at a little shop in the mall. I found us a table while Joe went to get our tea. It's a place we like because they make the tea from loose leaf placed in a bag. It's good tea. I pulled my gloves off and then got my glasses out of my pocket. My glasses are kept in a long rectangular metal tube. I put them on the table where they promptly fell to the ground. The sound was disproportionately loud for what had happened. I don't understand the science behind sound but when the metal hit the tile, it sound near to a gunshot, everyone looked.

Now everyone was a group of elderly women sitting next to us having a passionate discussion about someone or something in Spanish. A young woman sitting on a stool against the wall. and two men sitting at the table behind mine. I was facing them and the three women were on my left and the young woman on my right. The glasses were on the floor by my right foot pedal. They lay there waiting for Joe to come back with the tea. I wasn't worried. Joe has picked up lots of things that I've dropped and he does it without even thinking about it anymore.

But. The glasses on the floor became a source of some tension. The women kept glancing at it, like they were wondering who would help me. The young woman simply turned her back to the scene and the two men kept on talking with the man facing me directly kept looking at the glasses on the floor and back at the man he was with. As it turns out he was interviewing the young man for a position in a store in the mall. The interview was happening over coffee.

At the point that the CRACK or the metal hitting the tile, the young man being interviewed was talking about being a people person, liking to help people out and being fully dedicated to customer service. I saw him notice the guy interviewing him glance at the glasses and he turned and did too, then went back to his testimonial about himself being someone who would be an asset to the store because he would make the customers feel valued. I was sitting there thinking, 'Come on man, get up and get the glasses, or at least offer ...' It was obvious that the interviewer was watching him and his response to the situation.

Finally one of the older women couldn't take it anymore and started to get up saying that she'd get the glasses for me. I assured her that I had someone to help me and they would be picked up when the tea arrived. She looked relieved, both to know that the glasses would be off the floor and that she would not have to bend down to get them. It looked like it would have nearly been as much of a challenge for her as for me.

Everyone relaxed.

The errant glasses would be retrieved.

The interview continued. Joe arrived, set the tea down and picked the glasses up. It was over.

About ten minutes later the interviewer wrapped up the interview. He said to the fellow that he had done a wonderful interview but he was disturbed that, when he talked about valuing people and wanting to help people out, he hadn't offered to pick up my glasses. "But he's not a customer," the fellow protested. The interviewer said, "That's absolutely the worst thing you could have said." They shook hands and parted. The young man, the interviewee, glared at me when he went by.

But me, I was OK, I had my glasses and my tea.

Sometimes I'm an object of pity, sometimes I'm and object of inspiration and then sometimes I'm just an object lesson. The common theme is 'object' isn't it ... and I kind of object to that.
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Posted by Fred Clark

So you're sitting there across from the kid who's just done something dumb. Your role here is scriptural -- not in the sense that it's according to the scriptures, but in the sense that you're needing to say something that will be "profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness." You're concerned, in other words, not just with what this kid did, but with what this kid is becoming -- with the different kinds of person this kid could potentially become.
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Posted by Alexandra Rodney

Cultural appropriation generally refers to the adoption of traditional practices, objects, or images by a person or group that is not part of the originating culture. Cultural appropriation can become problematic when it is done without permission, serves to benefit the dominant group, and erases or further marginalizes the oppressed group. In this way, cultural appropriation can recreate larger structures of inequality.

On a recent stroll through a duty-free shop, I was introduced to one of these problematic examples in the form of a new Canadian product named “Totem Vodka,” packaged in a bottle resembling a totem pole. Totem Vodka is not a product of Indigenous entrepreneurship. Instead it is a form of problematic cultural appropriation. Here’s why:

First Nations Erasure

Totem poles are important symbolic creations of some First Nations families in Canada’s Pacific Northwest. They are symbols of family lineage that serve to document stories or histories of people, communities or clans. The Totem Vodka bottle and marketing images erases these families, while appropriating their symbols.


The bottle stopper is shaped like a Thunderbird, a supernatural bird who causes thunder and lightning according to First Nations mythology. The Thunderbird crest is traditionally carved on the totem poles of people from the Thunderbird clan of the Kwakwaka’wakw nations (on Vancouver Island). The origin of the Thunderbird (and totem poles) within Pacific Northwest First Nations communities is absent from the company’s description of the bottle’s design and construction. Instead, the bottle is superficially connected to a wide-array of global references; the bottle was “designed on the West Coast of Canada, moulded by French glassmakers and topped with an Italian-made custom stopper.”

Significantly, the individuals featured in pictures on the company’s Twitter account include few or no indigenous people.

First Nations Exploitation

The owner of Totem Distilleries is a wealthy white entrepreneur and proceeds from the vodka help support a wildlife rescue association without any First Nations connection.

Settler societies have, paradoxically, both outlawed the sacred work of totem pole carving by indigenous peoples and exploited it for their own profit. In this case, the totem pole is used as an aesthetic tool to distinguish the vodka as authentically “Canadian,” while reproducing an abstracted, exotified, and ultimately false vision of indigeneity. First Nations people in Canada have rarely been either credited or compensated for the use of their cultural symbol.

The example of Totem vodka fits within a larger pattern of racism and colonial exploitation of indigenous people. We can look to the historical effects of colonization in Canada to see how attempts to erase Indigenous culture, while simultaneously exploiting it for the benefit of colonizers, has led to systemic discrimination, exclusionary policies and neglect that continue into the present day. Using a totem pole as a vodka bottle symbolizes this larger, patterned systems of inequality.

Alexandra Rodney is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Toronto. She teaches Cultural Sociology and researches in the areas of food, gender and health. You can read more of Alexandra’s work on her website or follow her on Twitter

A special thank-you to Josée Johnston and Samantha Maskwa for their feedback on this post. Samantha is of Cree, Ojibway and Celtic ancestry. Her family is from the Rice Lake area and the southern part of Turtle Island and she is Bear clan. In addition to her midwifery degree, she is also completing a minor in Sociology and an Aboriginal Knowledges and Experiences certificate at Ryerson University in Toronto.

(View original at https://thesocietypages.org/socimages)

Advocacy In The Blood

Aug. 24th, 2016 12:30 am
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Posted by Dave Hingsburger

My dad, well, he isn't much of a talker. It is one of the many ways in which we differ. He's the kind of 'Here's your mother' ... kind of dad when he answers the phone. Conversations are best about the weather and are even better when short. As I said, he's not much of a talker.

I went to visit my parents last weekend. My dad is 92 years old and my mother a few years younger than that. When we were there something happened that surprised me to my core. We were all sitting around. My brother and his wife were there, my mother also of course, and we were having teas and coffees and just catching up.

Then.

Dad turns to me and tells me a story.

My Dad is not a natural born story teller, well, that's what I would have said seconds before he launched into this story. In fact he told the story well. Paused, built interest and had a sucker punch ending. I'm sitting there thinking, 'The man telling me this story is my Dad. The, 'here's your mom' guy. Further, I realized a few seconds in that this is a story chosen for me. He recognized it as a story that I would be interested in. Here's my dad's story, written, unfortunately with my words. I will not capture his tone, his cadence nor the words he chose.

He was down picking up a guidebook of hotels and motels in B.C. While he was there picking it up one of the staff asked him if he found the guidebook helpful.

Gee, I can't just let him tell his story, I'm going to interject, my dad is, for the most part, a go with the flow kind of guy, a not make waves guy, a decent nice man. So his response added to my shock.

"I told them that, no the guidebooks weren't that helpful at all," he said. "They asked me why and I said that it was one of the few guidebooks where none of the hotels had any indicators of whether or not they were accessible. I told them that my wife used a wheelchair and we needed an easy way to choose where to stay. The clerk said that she was sure I was wrong so I showed her. Not one. Not one hotel had any information about accessibility. She was shocked"

Not only was she shocked she took down my Dad's information! Here's Dad again:

"Well, wouldn't you know it, I got a letter from the states. The people who publish the guidebook and they apologized for having missed that detail in their publication and would look into ensuring that it would be included in upcoming publications."

That's my dad!!

The guy I thought I didn't have much in common with.

I shouted, "That's where I got it!" and threw my arms in the air. That Hingsburger blood has an advocacy gene in it that I didn't know about.

My dad knows that I battle for disability rights, he knew that I'd like the story. And I did.

As we left, every time we do so we wonder if we will all ever be together again, my dad put his hand on my back, he doesn't do that either, and said, "You take really good care of yourself won't you?" His voice was soft.

It sounded like he said goodbye.

I hope not.

I'm guessing there are more stories.
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Posted by chinookjargon

sawmill sign language

Thanks to the wonderful language-themed radio series A Way With Words, who give a justified hat tip to Atlas Obscura, we’re led to an article by Robert E. Johnson about “An Extension of Oregon Sawmill Sign Language”.  (Current Anthropology 18(2):353-354, 1977.)

On JSTOR, you can read it for free if you register.

In my dissertation I refer to Meissner and Philpott’s slightly earlier work on PNW sawmill sign languages, which gives a visual lexicon of many dozens of signs.

Johnson’s stuff is new to me, and I’d be intrigued to track down the two additional articles of his listed in its bibliography.

For the moment, I’m just enjoying learning more about non-oral pidgin languages, of which our region had several.  (Aside from the gestures widely, if shallowly, documented as having accompanied Chinook Jargon.)

Happy listening and reading!


The Hugos Thing

Aug. 24th, 2016 03:30 am
[syndicated profile] ursulav_feed
Disclaimer: This is how I feel about a weird and complicated situation. Other people can feel very differently and not be wrong, nor are they under any compulsion to feel the way I do.

So the Hugo awards were given out a few days ago, generally awesomely, and the long-list came out immediately after, as it does, and once again, it appears that I would have made the ballot if not for the weird ballot-stuffing hijinks that have been going on for a couple years.

And honestly, I wouldn't have said anything, but a couple people have expressed their sympathy, very cautiously, and it occurred to me that maybe I should say something to forestall concerns, because people may think it's a sore bit.

So--no, really, I'm cool.

1) I was in Ireland having the time of my life. I glanced at the results to see if...well, okay, to see if Chuck Tingle had won, I'll be honest, and saw links and clicked and said "oh, look, Wooden Feathers...uh, let's see, math, so if...ah. Well, goddammit."

And I waved it at Kevin, who looked at it, and uttered some variation on "Goddammit."

And then we went back to being in Ireland and having the time of our lives, because Ireland.

2) Naomi Kritzer's story rocked and her win was absolutely well-deserved.

3) Look, the shiny rocket ship is shiny and the big plastic cube full of planets is shiny (and also sets off airport security like WHOA) but that's not the real prize. It's awesome, but it's the symbol, not the prize. You could go buy a trophy if you really want something else to dust.

The real prize on any literary award is that a bunch of readers and writers thought your stuff deserved to stand with the best stuff of the year. And I totally got that. Wooden Feathers got the votes of a whole bunch of people who thought it deserved recognition. I feel the love! And the love, for me, is the important bit at this point, because:

4) I've still already got one. The buff still doesn't stack. I'm already fairly well known in my weird little field. It won't impact my career the way it might somebody else's. Other people definitely have the right to be upset, but for me, it seems a bit churlish to demand more.

And, of course, the really important one...

5) I'm 39. My first major sale was a little over nine years ago. In writing terms, I'm still so wet behind the ears that I can sustain a breeding population of newts in my scalp.

And I've already written a bunch of stuff. I have readers whom I love and am grateful for, and who have somehow not run screaming into the night yet. I will very likely keep writing until my hands go or my mind goes or I am killed in a freak gardening accident, and if the gods of words are kind, I will write a great many stories between now and then. And some will rock and some will suck and a couple will probably be profoundly baffling, and maybe a couple will even be great.

So, y'know. To those future stories, whatever they may be.

Onward!
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Posted by Velouria



There is an interesting phenomenon in the study of long term memory for events (i.e. "episodic memory"), whereby our present state of mind influences memories of the past. Take, for example, feelings and moods. When we're in a sad mood, we tend to remember sad memories; when in a happy mood happy memories. Moreover, should a non-mood congruent memory come to mind - For instance, someone might remind us of a happy memory when we are sad, in an attempt to cheer us up - we are likely to retroactively put a twist to the events, that will bring them in line with our current mood ("No-no, I was secretly miserable at that party!")

This phenomenon (called "mood congruence") extends to feelings toward other people. If we presently dislike a person we were once very much fond of, we might remember their actions in a sinister light, even though at the time we thought those same actions were wonderful.

Of course, human feelings and attitudes are so subjective, one might argue we are not so much changing or distorting the past when we do this, as re-interpreting it. In that regard, language presents an opportunity to study the phenomenon more objectively.

A bilingual person is much more likely to recall events that took place in the language they are speaking (or thinking in) at the time of the recollection. Moreover, when recalling events that took place in the other language, they might occasionally "auto-translate" the memory to the language they are presently using. This happens most often with people who grew up speaking one language, then switched to another later in life - usually due to a move abroad. So, for instance a former Romanian speaker for whom English is now the more dominant language, might find themselves remembering events that took place back in Romania, "auto-translated" into English.  In cases like these, it is clearer that we are in fact adjusting, or distorting, memories from the past to fall in line with what is presently more familiar.

Physical appearance can be another example, at least for those whose memories contain an inbuilt awareness of their physical self.  Let's say you used to be a chubby teenager with long brown hair, and you are now a skinny, spiky-haired blond adult. When "picturing" or "feeling" yourself in past memories, it is possible that your current physical sense of self might replace, or at least compete with, the period-correct one.

In memory research, these types of distortions are examples of "confabulation" - which sounds kind of disordered, except that, at least to some extent, it is part of the normal human memory process. Contrary to what some assume, a memory, once made, is not a "fixed" thing, like a mental recording of an event. Memories of the past are more like works in progress. They are porous, malleable. And in subtle ways they are continually tweaked, as we repeatedly retrieve, rehearse, and share them throughout our lives.

To varying degrees, any aspect at all of our present way of being is liable to seep into old memories, ultimately reshaping them. More often than not, we do not even notice when this happens. But sometimes when the anachronism is obvious, we can catch ourselves in the act. As a multi-lingual, I often catch myself remembering events in the "wrong language." And on more than a few occasions, I've also caught myself inserting bicycles into past events where they have no business of being.

I was remembering an incident today, from years and years back, where I sat on a park bench with a friend and we had an argument. My friend walked away, leaving me there by myself. I had a camera around my neck.  It began to rain.

What I remember next is, getting on my bike, putting the camera in the pannier, and starting to pedal home - the pedals feeling heavy under the cumbersome weight of a possible end to a friendship. This progression of the events came to mind so naturally, that only a good way into it I realised there was no way I could have cycled home: I was not able to ride a bike at the time; I did not own a bike.

Even knowing this, I struggled to un-dig the authentic version of this memory from the real-seeming physical sensation of cycling which replaced it.

It was not a big deal, really. Cycling versus walking did not change the crux of that particular memory. But it was such an obvious distortion, and I had implemented it so casually.

It made me aware that cycling, for me, has attained the status of a dominant language, or dominant state of mind. Not only does it colour my present thoughts and future plans, it also encroaches on memories past. Which I suppose should come as no surprise. Just another cog the "pathology of everyday life."



A Ferry Story

Aug. 23rd, 2016 08:27 am
[syndicated profile] rollingaroundinmyhed_feed

Posted by Dave Hingsburger

I'm not writing this to 'get back at' anyone. I just need to tell the story in context to get your opinion on how a situation was handled.

Joe and I were coming back on Sunday from Vancouver Island and I'd made a reservation on a late afternoon boat. As we drove down island we noted that the boat was sold out and were pleased that we had made the reservation. When we showed up we discovered, to our horror, that we'd mistakenly reserved for Saturday not Sunday and were facing over a six hour wait, as the next boat was also sold out.

I was a bit panicked because I knew that by then my legs would be quite swollen and painful. We plan our travel, if at all possible to ensure that we aren't overlong on the road. 10 to 12 hours is kind of a max for me. This wait would put us around 16 hours. I arranged to speak to someone at the ferry and when I did, I explained the situation. We'd made a mistake. I took responsibility for that. I explained why I was concerned with the wait.

Now, let me be clear. I was expecting that there was nothing that could be done. Even so, there's no harm in asking.

The fellow we spoke to listened. He said that as we had made the error there was nothing he could do to help. OK, so far, so good, we expected that. Then, he did something I thought was odd.

He went on to say that he had the power to put us on the boat but just wasn't going to. He gave an example of a fellow whose father was in the hospital in Vancouver and needed to get over. "I put him right on," he said. Then, he said to us, "Well, there was no harm in you asking." Which is what we thought too.

Then we watched him walk away.

Again, we were anticipating a 'no' and would have been okay with the 'no' but ... the 'I could if I wanted to but I don't want to' or the 'the other guy deserved my compassion but you don't' thing really rankled me. It was like he wanted it to be clear that he had to power to help and the power to withhold help. Like he wanted us to know, for certain, that he was saying 'no' ... that it wasn't just the circumstance that we found ourselves in, that it was HIS DECISION that we would not be helped.

That annoyed both of us.

Say 'no' and be done with it. But don't tell me that your 'no' is completely at your discretion and that you have said yes to more deserving others - and that you get to decide who deserving is.

Yep. It was my mistake in making the booking. I was unfamiliar with the website and should have been more careful particularly because I need to be responsible for my needs, I shouldn't need to rely on the compassion or kindness of strangers. I don't like playing the 'disability card' and really hated even asking.

In the end we got on the next boat so the wait was only 2.5 hours and we got in before I needed pain killers. Too, we met a wonderful woman at the ferry who tried to help us all she could and of course the staff on the boat, even though we got stuffed on at the tail end of the line up managed to park us so we could get both me and my chair out of the car. Overall I think the BC Ferries is pretty disability friendly.

But this guy and his 'I can but won't' attitude annoyed me.

Would that have bothered you too??

Please be frank, but respectful, in your comments.
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Posted by Daily Otter

A New Resident Arrives at Monterey Bay Aquarium

This is Selka, Monterey Bay Aquarium‘s newest resident! Selka is no stranger to the aquarium – she was rescued when she was only one week old. Known then as 595, she spent a few months with the aquarium’s surrogate sea otters, who taught the little one how to otter on her own. The aquarium released her to the wild, but only eight weeks later she was again rescued after having been attacked by a shark. Back she went to the aquarium, where she underwent surgery and rehabilitation, and when she was better, she was again released. She made her third visit to the aquarium after a few months in the wild, “this time due to concerns about her health and several interactions with people. US Fish and Wildlife determined that she was too likely to interact with humans to be safe in the wild and deemed her non-releasable.”

Selka’s next home was Pinniped Cognition & Sensory Systems Laboratory at the University of California Santa Cruz. Monterey Bay Aquarium writes:

Researchers named her Selka after the selkies, mythical seal-like creatures that can assume human form on land.

During her two-year research sabbatical, Selka provided scientists with a window into the previously unknown sensory and cognitive world of sea otters. She helped researchers understand how wild sea otters search for and acquire enough prey to survive in their ocean home.

She also won over the hearts of the researchers along the way. “Selka’s cleverness, combined with her easygoing and inquisitive nature, made her an ideal partner in these behavioral studies.” explains Dr. Colleen Reichmuth “She is a graceful, curious, and endearing creature. We think that the world will love her and are so happy that you can share her remarkable story.”

Now she’s found a permanent home at Monterey Bay Aquarium, where she’ll have lots of company and fun with their other resident sea otters! Read Monterey Bay Aquarium’s announcement here.

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Posted by Fred Clark

From Honolulu Civil Beat: “I want it understood by the general public and the media that the recent inflammatory comments made by candidate for Congress (CD2) Angela Kaaihue do not represent the views, values, or the sentiments of our Party and its members,” Fritz Rohlfing said in a statement issued late Friday. “Her vulgar, racially-bigoted, and religiously-intolerant descriptions of Democratic Party candidates are offensive, shameful, and unacceptable in public discourse.”

Back from Ireland

Aug. 22nd, 2016 11:38 pm
[syndicated profile] ursulav_feed
I have returned safely from the Emerald Isle, and holy crap, I don't even know what to say, but being me, I will now expend a pile of words to say it.

First, there's the color.

To call Ireland green is to commit glaring sins of omission. It is the sort of green reserved for gods and Pantone swatches. Kelly green, acid green, the greens you see in jars of pure mineral pigment, greens that blow out your photos the way that red roses or blue skies do. Green as primary color.


View from Kilcrea Castle Ruins, County Cork

When I lived in Oregon, I thought it was green, and then I moved to North Carolina and realized that it had been grey-green. North Carolina, I thought, was green. Then I went to Ireland. Now I see how yellow the undertones here are, and how desaturated the greens are by comparison. Fortunately, I am told that the only color that compares to Ireland is in the depths of the rainforest, so it will stay green in my head for a long time.

Also, as with so much of Europe, things are relentlessly old. I stood on the battlements of a ruined castle built at the same time as Blarney Castle and I could see three other ruins from the top. "Oh," said my friend Carlota, "that's the NEW ruin, over there..." Eventually it became a running joke--"Oh, that's the NEW standing stone..."  It became exciting when the new building wasn't old than my country. Occasionally they predated Europeans in North America at all.

Yes, I'm including the Vikings.

But possibly the most intense thing was simply that it was relentlessly, savagely picturesque. You could point your camera in any direction and come away with a postcard. It was beautiful, and it kept being beautiful, and eventually it got to the point where you would look over the view and start swearing, because it was being beautiful again.


After awhile, you stopped going "How lovely!" and started going "How do people stand this?"

(I asked Twitter. Residents uttered some variation on "Whiskey" and "You get used to it, but whiskey helps.")

You just have to figure that sooner or later, living in that kind of beauty would weigh down on you, and you'd either become hard as diamond or break and become a poet. It's just...intense. I think of people who left there--my ancestors, some of 'em--to come to America because of poverty or starvation or hope or whatever, and I can get just the smallest glimpse of what that must have been like--enough to know what I can't really imagine what it was really like. America is beautiful, don't get me wrong! (I believe there's a song about it.) But it's a completely different sort of beauty, a sort that doesn't much care about the people on it. If we all died tomorrow, I doubt America would even notice much, but Ireland would be sad that the people were gone. It's the difference between the Rockies and a green field with a black horse grazing surrounded by rooks, under a hill covered in mist. They're both beautiful, it's just...scale.

I don't know. Maybe I'm raving. I am only a tourist and don't pretend to know anything about what life is really like there. It was just...so intense.
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Posted by Alice Fothergill PhD and Lori Peek PhD

The great Louisiana Floods of 2016 have led to the closure of at least 22 of the state’s 70 public school districts, with additional districts calling off classes as a precaution given the immense devastation. This means that as many as one-third of the state’s public school students were out of school last week ,and potentially for many weeks to come. That equates to more than 241,000 children who are not in classrooms where they belong; and these figures do not even account for the many thousands of private and charter school students also out of school across the water-logged state.

2

Almost exactly 11 years ago, Hurricane Katrina disrupted some 370,000 school-age children. For our book, Children of Katrina, we spent nearly a decade examining how their lives unfolded in the years after the catastrophe. We focused on education as a key “sphere” of children’s lives. It is a special sphere in that it is unique to children and youth and it has specific time parameters: when the window for schooling is gone, children cannot get it back. Missing school means missing critical stages in cognitive and social development and likely suffering irreparable harm in terms of their intellectual growth, development, and future educational goals.

The school sphere, as with the other spheres of children’s lives, is marked by inequality, with some students having access to greater advantages than others. Some school districts, often segregated by race and class, have more resources and support than others; some families have the ability to enroll children in private schools that require tuition or arrange to be in a high-quality school district, while other families do not have those options.

Keeping this in mind, and recognizing the importance of education during displacement and recovery, there are many things that can and should be done, to support disaster affected children and youth and their educational process. These include:

  • Reopening schools (including childcare centers and pre-schools) as quickly as possible after a disaster; this means allocating proper resources to repair, rebuild, and/or revive schools in disaster zones;
  • In receiving communities that receive large numbers of displaced children and youth, providing pathways for their rapid enrollment;
  • Offering emotional support through optional peer-oriented and/or peer-led support groups as well as licensed professional counselors, social workers, and school therapists;
  • Training all school staff—from upper-level administrators, to teachers, to custodians—how to be supportive of children and youth who have been affected by disaster as well as those who are in receiving communities who are now welcoming disaster-affected youth into their classrooms;
  • Designing and implementing disaster preparedness, response, and recovery curriculum within classrooms;
  • Providing opportunities for children to help their schools’ and classmates’ recovery; this could, for example, come in the form of service learning, fundraising, mentoring programs, or community action activities;
  • Offering immediate and long-term support for teachers, who are often recovering from disaster themselves; this may include financial, professional, and emotional support;
  • Intervening against bullying and stigma that may be attached to “disaster survivor” status for youth; reminding these professionals that bullying may be exacerbated based on region of origin, gender, age, race, or other characteristics;
  • Integrating displaced children in classrooms with familiar faces if possible;
  • Making school days as predictable as possible and re-establishing routines within classrooms and schools;
  • Allowing children and youth the opportunity to work on projects that help them process their disaster experience;
  • Funding school programs in arts, music, drama, and creative writing to encourage expression and foster healing.

Alice Fothergill, PhD is an associate professor of sociology at the University of Vermont. She is a member of the Social Science Research Council Research Network on Persons Displaced by Katrina. Fothergill’s book, Heads Above Water: Gender, Class, and Family in the Grand Forks Flood, examines women’s experiences in the 1997 flood in North Dakota. She is also co-editor of Social Vulnerability to Disasters.

Lori Peek, PhD is an associate professor of sociology and Co-Director of the Center for Disaster and Risk Analysis at Colorado State University. She also serves as the Associate Chair for the SSRC Task Force on Hurricane Katrina and Rebuilding the Gulf Coast and is a member of the SSRC Research Network on Persons Displaced by Katrina. Peek is the author of the award-winning book Behind the Backlash: Muslim Americans after 9/11 and co-editor of the volume Displaced: Life in the Katrina Diaspora.

Together, Fothergill and Peek are the authors of the award-winning book, Children of Katrina, the longest-term ethnographic study of children in disaster.

(View original at https://thesocietypages.org/socimages)

Bigot Bowling

Aug. 22nd, 2016 10:40 am
[syndicated profile] rollingaroundinmyhed_feed

Posted by Dave Hingsburger

A long way from home, I am pushing myself in a mall. Part of it is to do some shopping but I am primarily here for the exercise of pushing myself long distances. I am now strong enough to push myself up inclines and curbs but lack the ability to do long distances.  So, that's what I was doing. Joe was back at the car getting something. I was just pushing by a fellow sitting on a bench. He looked familiar, really familiar. Older, much older, but familiar. I suddenly put it together and spoke to him. I was right, he was someone I'd worked with decades ago back in Ontario. I knew he'd moved west but I'd never expected to see him again.

We chatted only for a moment when he said, "People call me names. Mostly they call me fat. But they call me other names too." It was just a statement. Not a question. A statement. It was like he just needed to say, "This is what life is for me here." I didn't know what to say, or how to answer, then I realized, that I don't work with him any more. I'd thrown myself back into a role that I didn't have. I pushed myself to simply think of this as two people who've run into each other after many years. Then it was easy to know what to say, "That's wrong." A simple statement.

He nodded. "I know it's wrong. But they do it anyways."

I agreed and said, "They know it's wrong too, but they don't care. Mean people are like that."

"What should I do?" he asked. Then I knew that maybe I had shrugged off our previous relationship but he hadn't. His tone in asking the question was exactly what it had been all those years ago when we worked together. "Should I hit them," he asked. I knew he knew the answer to that question.

"When people call me names, which happens all the time," I said, "I feel like hitting them. I do. But I never do. There are other things I do."

He asked me how I handled the teasing, the stares.

We talked for about 5 minutes more. Swapping ideas and even laughing a few times as we talked about living different in a world that doesn't honour or welcome our kind of difference.

I left him there after introducing him to Joe and wished him well. I rolled away and then looked back. He looked so lonely and so vulnerable. He looked defeated by the life he lived. By the constant battery he took from those who know better but use him for target practice any ways. He told me that people never hit him, they just call him names, all the time, every day. I had shared my strategies but I'm not sure he cared about them. I think he wanted a moment where he wasn't alone. "I feel really alone when people call me those names," he had said. His ask of me was not 'therapy' or 'counselling' but for a moment of 'unaloneness.' I could give that to him because of shared experience.

When we came back down the mall from the other end he was gone.

The bench was empty.

I was sorry I didn't have a chance to chat for another couple of moments. I looked around at the people in the mall. I wondered which of these would be someone who would just randomly hurt someone like him. Then I heard someone say loudly to a friend, "Look at that fat fucker!" I turned to see a young man standing with his friend. I knew then, who amongst these would do that. I turned my chair and began pushing towards him. I must have been a frightening sight, because he looked afraid.

"Let's get out of here," he said to his friend who looked equally scared of a big boiling mass of fat cripple aiming straight at them like a bowling ball about to knock them over. I wasn't going to, of course, I had something to say. But they took off running.

So I never got to say it.

But, then, maybe I did.

“Le pea-coat”, a Canadianism?

Aug. 21st, 2016 09:22 pm
[syndicated profile] chinookjargon_feed

Posted by chinookjargon

canadian peacoat

*le pea-coat

Once in a while I reencounter this rarish Chinook Jargon word that has always caused my brain a mild itch that I’ll get to momentarily: lapikwo “frock; short-coat” (as given in Father St Onge’s manuscript dictionary).

As a Jargon word having the same spelling, this turns up also in Demers’ 1871 dictionary, prayer book, etc.  Nothing  to surprise us there, because St Onge was the editor of that volume.    I don’t find it elsewhere.

My colleague Marie-Lucie Tarpent, a talented linguist and a native speaker of French, has suggested the following view of lapikʰwo in the 2012 Grand Ronde Chinuk Wawa dictionary:

l'habit court

l’habit court

mlt proposes French “l’habit court” \l abi kur\ ‘the short coat’ as the likeliest explanation of this obscure term.

— page 276

This analysis, 100% sound, nonetheless surprised me.  Because from first blush onward, this word of Jargon has seemed to me like a blend:

  • French la (or le) “the”, PLUS
  • English peacoat “style of short jacket typically worn by sailors”

And we do have quite a number of French-articled English loans that came into the Jargon, which I’ve come to see as indicators of the Canadian French presence in the Pacific Northwest– perhaps specifically Métis French.  They’re certainly not standard, European, French, which in the 19th century seems not to have borrowed so much from l’anglais.  Examples include:

  • laslí ‘sleigh’, found in Kamloops-area Jargon and in Salish languages around there
  • labíns ‘beans’ known from the Grand Ronde dictionary
  • lapʰéyl ‘can (or pail?)’ from GR
  • legléy ‘grey’ (looks both English and French, cf. Fr. gris)
  • likʰák ‘cock, rooster’ (ditto, cf. Fr. coq) from GR
  • lishát ‘shirt’ from GR

Comparably, we have the widely known lakamás ‘camas’ built on an originally Nez Perce word.

Notice that the French articles la and le are reflected in Jargon pronunciations of varying faithfulness to the originals.  So I infer that the spelling lapikwo with an “a” doesn’t necessarily tell us that the French source had to have been pronounced [la…] as in l’habit court.  Maybe it could’ve been [lə…] as in my hypothetical, therefore asterisked, French *le pea-coat.

What other arguments can we bring in to this examination?

We know that l’habit court ‘the short habit ( ~ uniform of a professionally religious person)’ was a phrase that was in use contemporaneously with the Canadian voyageurs.  A look at Google Books suggests it was widely known in the 19th century.  Was my supposed *le pea-coat really a thing, too?

      1. Con: I personally find l’habit court the more persuasive etymology, on several grounds (read on)!
        Prol’habit court seems to my mind unlikely to have been a frequent expression in voyageur French.  *le pea-coat on the other hand has a more colloquial sound to it, says this nonnative speaker:)
      2. Conl’habit court is a mighty good semantic match for lapikwo‘s meaning as “a short jacket”.
        Prol’habit court, if I’m understanding the gist of the texts I find via Google, actually referred to an entire outfit of clothes, not just the jacket that “pea-coat” denotes.
      3. Con: l’habit court is positively known from contemporaneous French-language sources.
        Pro: no observers on the Pacific NW scene give this French phrase as an explanation of lapikwo, even though they customarily point out French etymologies every time they can think of one.
      4. Con: the Catholic missionary priests in the PNW conceivably wore l’habit court, even though it was fairly fancy garb for higher-ranking priests; “our” missionaries were better known for (and as) humble “black robes”.
        Pro: hardly any of the Christian religious phrases and words in Jargon that — unlike this one –we find definitely documented in the missionaries’ usage successfully took hold in other people’s “street Jargon” use.
      5. Con: there is a “t” at the end of “pea-coat”, but none in lapikwo.  Not a perfect match.
        Pro: in Canadian (and other) French dialects, we’re familiar with instances where an original final “t” is variably preserved; just look at Chinook Jargon kapu ‘coat’ from capot/capote.  And note that lapikwo shares most of its meaning with kapu; mutual influence is not unimaginable here.
      6. Con: I’m so far unable to find any documentation of *le pea-coat in French of that era.
        Pro: we don’t find any of the above-mentioned blends either, in French, but the evidence says they existed.  So *le pea-coat is equally believable.
      7. Con: I don’t yet find much mention of the word “peacoat”, even in English, with reference to the Pacific Northwest coast and Indigenous people.
        Pro: Lewis and Clark in 1805 and 1806 noted Indigenous people already wearing what L&C refer to by the synonym “pea jackets”, obtained from trading ships.  And sure enough, “pea jacket” was always the most common 19th-century term in written English for this garment — but “pea-coat” came into vogue in the 1830s, early enough to have entered Chinook Jargon via Canadian French.  That’s the approximate time frame when most of our known CJ French words started to be documented, so what do you think about that?

My own conclusion for the time being is, I’d like to add the etymology *le pea-coat as an asterisked alternative suggestion under any dictionary entry for lapikwo.

As we’ve found when seeking etymologies of plenty other Jargon words (look at siyápuł in the Grand Ronde dictionary), there can be multiple possibilities, and those competing candidates can be just about equally plausible.  They can historically influence each other, too.

It can be worth examining the histories of individual words in what I’m well aware is maddening detail.  Further excruciations can be suggested.  (Does it matter that lapikwo contains “kw” instead of a “k” sound, ends in an “o” rather than an “u” sound, and displays no trace of the original final “r” sound of l’habit court?  Etc.)  But I have to pick a point at which to summarize my reasoning.

The takeaway from my essay today is my belief that we can sometimes retrieve useful historical information from this kind of painstaking exercise.  A particular interest of mine is how Chinook Jargon reveals new details about North American French.  The lower Columbia River varieties including that of Grand Ronde tell us especially juicy things regarding the ultimate fate of French at the periphery of this continent.


[syndicated profile] slacktivist_feed

Posted by Fred Clark

This is a thing that a lot of evangelical Christians do and that we really need to stop doing. It's an attempt to tell your story in a way that discounts and dismisses every other story. That's always a bad look and it comes from a bad place. It's the impulse that is unable to celebrate anything without simultaneously disparaging everything else that is not that thing. And it's an attempt to bolster what you're saying about what you do know by claiming to also be an expert about everything else.

Isn't

Aug. 21st, 2016 08:19 am
[syndicated profile] rollingaroundinmyhed_feed

Posted by Dave Hingsburger

I have not been shy, in this blog or on my Facebook page, as identifying as a fat man. For the most part I feel fairly safe doing so. The people who read here, and the people who I am 'Friends' with on Facebook are by and large people who understand issues regarding difference and prejudice. Even so, there are moments when I realize that even these spaces are not particularly safe for me.

Everyone has seen, I imagine, the news reports of the 5 statues of a nude Donald Trump that showed up in very public places in 5 American cities. The statues aren't at all accurate, I know this not because Mr. Trump have been intimate, but because I've seen him clothed and know that he does not have the body that has been created for the statue. He is not a particularly fat man.

But, we live in days where racism and sexism and homophobia and ableism and disphobia are no where near as damning to a person's reputation or character than simply calling them, in any form possible, fat. Further the statues show Mr. Trump having a very small penis, it being embedded behind folds of fat.

When you see pictures of the statues you also see pictures of people around the statues. People desperate to get a picture of them. Pictures of women screwing up their faces in disgust as they touch the statues penis. People laughing at the image, not of Trump, because other than the hair and face, nothing about this is Trump, but at fat men with fat bodies, at men with penises which nestle rather than hang because of the body type they are attached to.

Worse are the comments.

I can't ever unsee that again.

This is so disgusting I can't even look.

I'm going to stop there, because they get worse, much worse and they betray what I know to be true, being fat is the ultimate in ugliness, in failure, in criticism.

Mr. Trump and his rhetoric appalls me. But it's what he says, it's how he represents himself that causes me to react to him the way I do. It has nothing to do with his hair, his body or the size of his penis.

Nothing.

Yet I see people, people who I thought were pretty cool people, cool with difference, cool with me as a person, posting pictures of these statues with horrible fat phobic remarks. Remarks made acceptable because they think they are commenting on Trump. Of course they're not. They are commenting on men who look like me, fat men.

And it startles me.

You say, in all your other posts that you honour difference.

You say, in all your other posts that people should love themselves as they are.

You say, in all your other posts that body shaming is wrong.

And now I know.

You lied.

And I don't know what to do about it. Except to realize that the space I thought was safe.

Isn't.

Sunday favorites

Aug. 21st, 2016 11:08 am
[syndicated profile] slacktivist_feed

Posted by Fred Clark

"But when you give a banquet, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, and the blind. And you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you, for you will be repaid at the resurrection of the just."

Away with me

Aug. 20th, 2016 12:26 am
[syndicated profile] yarn_harlot_feed

Posted by Stephanie Pearl-McPhee

Ah, Friday, where the heck did you come from? This week sped by, as I tried to get caught up, and was thwarted at a few turns. Most notably, I smashed the everloving daylights out of my phone on Wednesday evening. (A stumble in the dark, and I prevented a fall with an outstretched phone, which in retrospect was pretty stupid. I heal and have health care. My phone, not so much.) The day dissolved into a journey to the Apple Store, which turned into a wait at the Apple Store while they repaired the phone, and a period of three hours in which I had no phone, which was odder than I’d imagined. It reminded me of my mother in a power outage. She’s the smartest person I know, but outages are her kryptonite. She goes from activity to activity – “Balls, the power is out and I can’t put the TV on. Never mind, I’ll listen to the radio. Dammit, the power is out, the radio doesn’t work. I’ll do a little ironing. Son of a gun, that won’t work either. Never mind pets, let’s plug in the kettle and have tea….” You see how it goes, and that was me with no phone. I decided I’d listen to podcasts while I waited, remembered I had no phone, decided to listen to an audiobook, remembered I had no phone, decided to check my email instead…. I was the living embodiment of my mother in the dark. At one point I realized that without a phone I didn’t even have a clock, and approached a stranger. “Excuse me, do you have the time?” She was holding her phone, and looked at me like I’d just asked her if she could help me shear an alpaca, right there in the Eaton’s Centre. “The time?” She goggled, and I had to tell her that Apple was holding my phone hostage, and I don’t wear a watch because, you know. I use my phone for that. She checked her phone, told me the time, and then asked me when I was getting my phone back. Her response was a bizarre mix of incredulity and sympathy, and I could tell, as she clutched her phone a little more tightly, that she was imagining what it would be like. “Wow” she said, when I told her it would be a few more hours. “I know” I sighed. “It’s a difficult time.”

A cleverer knitter would have seen the phone thing coming, and perhaps taken a sock or  printed out a nice reliable paper pattern to take with her, but as it stood, I’d handed the PDF version of my pattern over to the Apple people, and couldn’t even knit. I did try for a while, using previous repeats as a guide, but it was slow and silly. In the end I bought a dress with birds on it, and then a book – since I’d given my current book to the Apple people in the form of my phone.  It all ended well (except that I sat in something yucky on the subway, then I stepped in gum, and a bird crapped on me and some dude with a questionable grasp on reality yelled at me on the sidewalk) and I got home, and decided to essentially end it all nicely with a glass of wine (2) and a nice long knit. That knit (now that I had my pattern/phone) back again, finished the Ghazal Cowl -

thecowlalmost 2016-08-19

Well, it’s almost finished, I’ve pulled out the provisional cast-on I did at the beginning, and I just have to graft the two halves together, but I yesterday must have been some sort of sacrifice to whatever force of destiny decides how my days go, because when I’d done all the repeats I could, and ended on the right row, this is how much yarn I had left.

whatsleft 2016-08-19

That there is a winning game of Yarn Chicken, and a perfect ending to a knit using handspun. When I’m done the graft I bet there will be less than 10cm of remaining, and that was worth stepping in gum for. (I am less sure about the phone.)  Tonight I’ll graft, and then block, and then I guess I have to make another decision. I’m off on Sunday with the indomitable Jen and her two girls, to whom I am an honourary Auntie, and we’re headed far, far up north for some Canadian fun and games. Tents, canoes, camping and hunting for fireflies. A Thelma and Louise roadtrip – if you add in two little kids. There should be tons of knitting time (the drive is 8 hours, for starters) and I’ll be packing along lots of wool. We are going far enough North that summer is already gasping her last there, so it will be all fires, and sweaters, and hunts for fairy houses through the woods.

Now, a few Karmic Balancing gifts, just to make sure my luck holds? You bet.

(PS. I’ve added a teaching gig in Calgary at Pudding Yarn the weekend of September 18th to the roster. There’s spots, if you’d like to join us.)

First up, Terri Major (friend of the show, lovely lady) has free patterns for three of you. Any three patterns for three knitters, your choice from her shop. Pictured is the lovely Rose Arbour Baby Blanket, and I’d get that for sure, but Krystal L, Kristin and Lee T will somehow choose.

terrisblanket 2016-08-19

Next, a trio of beautiful cases from Grace at the aptly named “Grace’s Cases“.  I love her stuff, and these cases are so pretty – of the first, Grace says “This new Basic “Anything Goes” Spillproof Needle Case has just two pages and is perfect as an expansion case or a starter case.  It is Multi-purpose in that you can store a wide variety of items.  Page 1 has 7 snap pockets that can hold either fixed circulars or lots and lots of cables
Page 2 has 13 graduated slots that can hold dpns sizes 0-9, regular or interchangeable hooks up to 6″ in length, or interchangeable tips sizes 2-15. Generous notions pocket included in cover.”  Better than that, it’s bike themed.  I hope that Kelly M loves it.

basicbikecase 2016-08-19 basicbikecase1 2016-08-19

Second “The Petite Lovely Tote. A great size to use as a project bag / bucket, or perfect for shopping at your local yarn store.  We kept it simple and clean on the inside and out. No pockets, no padding, nothing to catch on things – the space is all yours!  Measures 10” tall, 10” wide, 5” deep at base – Perfect for knit night projects!!” and also bike themed! I bet Ruth D has somewhere to take it.
totbaggrace 2016-08-19

Last, but certainly not least “Cupcake Bags are divided project bags specifically designed for color work or TAAT projects. The lower portion of the bag is divided into two sections to keep your cakes from tangling and the upper portion has room for project storage.  Roll the top down to form a divided yarn bowl! Or attach a carabiner or clip to the included loop to hang it anywhere. Dual drawstring top closure.” and that’s going to Sarah E.
cupcakebag2 2016-08-19 cupcakebag 2016-08-19

If you’d like your own, Grace’s shop is here.

 From The Mountain would like to donate 1 skein of worsted weight yarn in a natural colour, and several one-skein pattern options.  Their yarn is 100% cashmere and is hand spun in Afghanistan by women who are earning a fair wage for their work.  After over a decade of conflict, many women in Afghanistan have been left as heads of household, but with very few safe income opportunities.  Spinning for From the Mountain offers them a way to earn income and be home with their families at the same time.  I hope that Chris A loves it, and where it comes from.

cashmere 2016-08-19
Amy has a pretty gift, bless her generous heart, a kit for Mrs. Beaton’s Wrist Warmers. She’ll happily mail that sweet little package off to Emily W.

beatonwrist 2016-08-19

Brenda, another pretty awesome knitter, went into her stash and came up with two skeins of IndigoDragonfly merino-silk 4-ply sock in “Partying is Hafla Fun.” She’ll be mailing that off to Julie B, and I know they’ll love it.

indigodfly 2016-08-19

Jan has an adorable bag that she’ll be sending off to Muriel T.  It’s a “Tour de Forest” bag (how appropriate!) If you can’t live without one of your own, her shop is here. (I might not be able to live without one.)

jansbag 2016-08-19

Phew! I’ve emailed all the lucky knitters concerned, and I’ll try to get another batch up tomorrow. While I decide what knitting comes camping. Maybe something brown. That’s always a good camping colour.

Save

[syndicated profile] sociological_images_feed

Posted by Lisa Wade, PhD

Flashback Friday.

Is it true that Spanish-speaking immigrants to the United States resist assimilation?

Not if you judge by language acquisition and compare them to earlier European immigrants. The sociologist Claude S. Fischer, at Made in America, offers this data:

The bottom line represents the percentage of English-speakers among the wave of immigrants counted in the 1900, 1910, and 1920 census. It shows that less than half of those who had been in the country five years or less could speak English. This jumped to almost 75% by the time they were here six to ten years and the numbers keep rising slowly after that.

Fast forward 80 years. Immigrants counted in the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Census (the top line) outpaced earlier immigrants by more than 25 percentage points. Among those who have just arrived, almost as many can speak English as earlier immigrants who’d been here between 11 and 15 years.

If you look just at Spanish speakers (the middle line), you’ll see that the numbers are slightly lower than all recent immigrants, but still significantly better than the previous wave. Remember that some of the other immigrants are coming from English-speaking countries.

Fischer suggests that the ethnic enclave is one of the reasons that the wave of immigrants at the turn of the 20th century learned English more slowly:

When we think back to that earlier wave of immigration, we picture neighborhoods like Little Italy, Greektown, the Lower East Side, and Little Warsaw – neighborhoods where as late as 1940, immigrants could lead their lives speaking only the language of the old country.

Today, however, immigrants learn to speak with those outside of their own group more quickly, suggesting that all of the flag waving to the contrary is missing the big picture.

Originally posted in 2010.

Lisa Wade, PhD is a professor at Occidental College. She is the author of American Hookup, a book about college sexual culture, and a textbook about gender. You can follow her on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.

(View original at https://thesocietypages.org/socimages)

[syndicated profile] chinookjargon_feed

Posted by chinookjargon

A strangely unsung figure in Chinook Jargon history writes from his deathbed, in Jargon, in 1898.

Father Louis-Napoléon St Onge, OMI (b. 1812), had apprenticed as a young missionary with the now better-known Fathers Modeste Demers (1809-1871) and François Blanchet (1795-1883), becoming fluent in Sahaptin (Yakama) and Chinook Jargon.

holy angels college

Important to know: early in his Northwest years, St Onge was a teacher of philosophy, astronomy, and other subjects “in the Holy Angels College” (established 1850), Vancouver, Washington Territory.  This assuredly exposed him to the children of the fur trade-centered, ethnically mixed community that first creolized Chinook Jargon.

I’ve been working on St Onge’s huge manuscript dictionary of the Jargon, and it clearly reflects some of the earliest documentation of a variety that’s more like the Chinuk Wawa creole of Grand Ronde than any of the pidgin varieties we know of.  For a small taste of his Jargon, you can peek at the “regional Jargon” section of the 2012 Grand Ronde dictionary.

A big reason that I say St Onge was tremendously important in the history of this language, besides the voluminous and previously unresearched documents of Jargon that he created, is that he loaned his materials to Father Le Jeune as a resource for writing the latter’s hundreds of pages of shorthand newspaper and books as expressively as possible.  St Onge’s influence on the famous Kamloops Wawa‘s phrasing and vocabulary is quite strong.   St Onge was also an enthusiastic correspondent in shorthand Chinook (Chinuk pipa) with Indians of BC’s southern interior.

(The best biographical sketch of St Onge seems to be the one in James C Pilling’s 1893 bibliography of Chinookan languages.  Sadly, it lacks dates for many events in this interesting man’s life.)

Now to St Onge’s farewell letter to the Chinook Jargon-writing Indigenous people of the Kamloops region.  Editor Father Le Jeune makes a brief introduction:

Pir Sint Onsh iaka mamuk pipa kopa msaika,
Pere St Onge has written to you folks,

tlus msaika nanich ikta iaka wawa kopa msaika.
you should read what he’s written to you.

St Onge letter in KW (2)

“Iht mun alta naika skukum sik.
“For a month now I’ve been terribly ill.  

Naika tomtom klunas naika aiak mimlus:
I think I may be rapidly dying: 

naika pilpil kaltash mitlait kopa naika tiawit
my blood just sits around in my legs.

Naika lipii chako aias kol, pi wik kata
My feet get very cold, and there’s no way 

pus naika mamuk chako wam klaska. Naika
for me to warm them.  I 

mamuk kanawi ikta lamicin pus mamuk
try all kinds of medicine to make 

chako wam naika lipii pi naika tiawit,
my feet and my legs warm up, 

pi kaltash. Mokst naika lipii chako
but it doesn’t work.  Both my feet have gotten 

aias hloima, sitkom tikop, sitkom
very strange-looking, half white, half 

tlil, pi kanawi hloima cim. Naika
black, and covered with odd marks.  I 

kakshit klaska pus mamuk kuli pilpil;
beat on them to get the blood flowing; 

naika pok’pok’ pi hwip klaska, pi
I slap and whip them, but 

kaltash. Alta naika tomtom klaska
it doesn’t work.  Now I think they’re 

aiak chako puli, pi naika mamuk
quickly rotting, and I 

chako doktor; iaka wawa: “Wik
called a doctor; he said, “There is no 

tlus lamicin pus maika; naika lolo
good medicine for you; I’m taking 

maika kopa aias skul haws, pi maika
you to the university, and you 

iskom skukum iliktrisiti. Iaka drit
will receive jolts of electricity.”  He really   

mamuk paia naika lipii pi naika tiawit.
burnt up my feet and my legs.  

Klaska chako kakwa pus paia kopa liplip
They got to be like they were burnt up with boiling  

chok. Ana! Naika sik, pi pus
water.  Oh my!  I was sick, but when 

iaka kopit mamuk paia, chi pilpil chako
it was done burning, the blood began 

St Onge letter in KW (4)

kopa kanawi aias pi tanas pilpil=
running in all the big and little blood 

oihat. Tanas lili klaska chako
vessels.  For a while they 

wam. Alta naika chako ihi tomtom
warmed up.  Now I’ve gotten excited 

kopa klaska. Tlus pus msaika
about them.  You folks should 

skukum styuil kopa ST pus naika,
pray hard to God for me, 

pus wawa mirsi kopa iaka, kopa
to thank him for 

ukuk naika chako tanas tlus, pi
my small improvement, and 

pus iaka skukum hilp naika pus naika
for him to help me strongly when I 

mimlus.”
die.”

 

<L.N. St Onge.>

<Séminaire de St Hyacinthe>

<P.Q. Canada.>

— Kamloops Wawa #163 (April 1898), page 53


[syndicated profile] slacktivist_feed

Posted by Fred Clark

Chloe's "intellectual" objections are never explained or described. The authors cannot imagine what the substance of such objections might be. Nor do they care. If those objections are intellectual, then they are anti-faith, and that is all that they or their readers need to know.
[syndicated profile] lovelybike_feed

Posted by Velouria


Despite being a fan of theirs for some time, there were many things I never knew about Bike Friday - until, deep into my two months review process, I chanced to discover them through dialogue with the Oregon-based small wheel bike manufacturer. One such piece of trivia, is that the company's co-founder, Alan Scholz, is also the inventor of the Burley Trailer. In one fell swoop, many of my questions about the Haul-a-Day's origins were answered. A trailer and a folding bike designer! No wonder he saw fit to add a cargo hauling model to Bike Friday's lineup. The development of the Haul-a-Day now seemed not only logical, but inevitable. I only marveled that it had not happened sooner.

But the specifics of this bike coming into existence are a rather interesting "it takes a village" story. In 2014 Bike Friday was approached by Shane MacRhodes, founder of Kidical Mass and local Safe Routes to School Coordinator, with the idea of making a versatile bicycle on which his instructors could lead their Safe Routes classes. The design criteria presented an interesting challenge: In addition to being well-balanced and nimble, the bike needed to be able to haul the instructor's personal gear, plus traffic cones and safety gear, with room to carry a tired child and their bike as well, if need be! Of course the bike also needed to fit a wide range of riders, as the Safe Routes instructors varied in height and weight.



After several iterations and glowing reports from the field, Bike Friday decided to offer this machine as a standard production model. This was funded by a successful Kickstarter campaign in late 2014, and the first bikes were delivered in February of 2015 - named the "Haul-a-Day" by a pun-loving customer.

As for their own role in the whole process, Bike Friday almost demurs from taking any credit at all:

"We were surprised to realise that for many situations the Haul-a-Day was a better solution than a trailer for carrying children and things. [Our founder] has been designing and building trailers for decades starting with the Burley child trailer in the 70's. It took customer request for the bike to help him discover this new insight."

This type of customer-driven evolution has always been part of Bike Friday's modus operandi. Nevertheless, the engineering and design that went into this machine on their end are not to be underestimated. In the course of using this bicycle, to say that it outperfomed my expectations would be more than fair.


As I mentioned in my introduction to the Haul-a-Day  it was loaned to me specifically to test in a different context from the usual use case scenario of their first wave of customers, which has largely involved short distances, an urban or suburban setting, and the transport  of children.

By contrast, my use case scenario involves no heavy-duty or living cargo, but instead long distances, rural settings, challenging terrain and blustery weather conditions. So the focus of this review is not so much the Haul-a-Day's ability to carry impressive amounts of stuff (which has already been well-documented elsewhere), but of its suitability as hilly, long-distance transport.

There is a lot of debate regarding whether a cargo bike - long tail or otherwise - can be a realistic option in such a setting without motor assist. Bike Friday believed their Haul-a-Day model potentially could be. And they wondered whether I would agree.

I had this bicycle on loan for a total of two months (May and June 2016). In the course of this time I used it as I would have used my own cargo bike - riding it whenever its hauling services were required.


Geometry and Specs

To begin with the design and specifications: As some of this has already been covered in my introduction to the Haul-a-Day, if you are interested in the details please read that first, then come back to this post. But to highlight some key points, the Haul-a-Day:

. is a disassemblable, small-wheeled, long-tail cargo bike, with a supplementary frame-mounted front platform
. is rated for loads of 200-250lb
. is adjustable in size (and wheelbase) by means of sliding frame construction
. is designed around 20" wheels with fat tyres
. weighs 33b empty
. can be stored upright in small spaces
. can be taken apart (disassembles into 3 pieces) for travel, shipment, or long term storage
. is suitable for paved and unpaved terrain
. is available with custom paint and components packages
. is priced starting at $1,190 USD

I am sure I'm forgetting something, but that is the gist of it.

The frames are built in-house with a mixture of 4130 cro-moly and DOM tubing, using a combination of brazed and TIG-welded construction.

Some key geometry figures include:

. 73° parallel angles for head tube and seat tube
. 44mm of rake (resulting in 75mm trail)
. bottom bracket height of 268-304mm, depending on sliding frame adjustment

Dimensions of the virtual head tube, seat tube and top tube lengths vary hugely as a result of the bike's adjustability. Depending on setup, the Haul-a-Day is suitable for riders 4'6" - 6'4", which is an uncommonly versatile range.


Hauling: Front Carry

An interesting aspect of the Haul-a-Day's geometry for me is the high-trail front end. As I mentioned in my initial post about this bike, in looking for a suitable basket for the front platform I accidentally overdid it and found this monster of a thing - which, amazingly, not only fit within the space between platform and handlebars, but, filled with all manner of inordinately heavy objects, had no effect on the bicycle's handling what so ever. While it is commonly said that low trail geometry is preferable for carrying front loads, the Haul-a-Day's impreviousness to weight in the front confirms my own experience in this regard - which is that the manner in which the weight is secured, and the height at which the weight sits, play a bigger role in its effect on handling than frame geometry. The Haul-a-Day's frame-mounted front rack design and small front wheel make carrying even significant amounts of weight in the front feel absolutely normal.

In fact, I liked being able to load up that huge front basket so much, that I eventually had to remove it from the front platform, so as to force myself to rely more on rear carry - which is, after all, what this bicycle was designed for. And in response to my question whether Bike Friday would ever consider a front-load bakfiets model? Unfortunately it's not on their list of priorities just yet!


Hauling: Rear Carry 

As mentioned already, my cargo carry requirements are not exactly epic. To quote from an earlier post, the sort of thing I'd normally haul on a cargo bike includes

...everything from groceries - in quantities that would overwhelm an ordinary bicycle - to, perhaps more crucially, things such as bicycle parts, art supplies, hardware store purchases, unusually shaped parcels, light pieces of furniture, and other objects that are not so much heavy as they are long or awkwardly shaped. And while it would not be impossible to secure some of these items to an ordinary bicycle and ride with them gingerly, the cargo bike makes it a much easier and less precarious process, and saves multiple trips...

To start with the large and awkwardly shaped objects, in the course of my testing the Haul-a-Day these have included partially assembled bicycles, large picture frames, pieces of furniture (chair, coffee table), a step-ladder, some long-handled mops, et cetera. While carrying such things on the small-wheeled Haul-a-Day makes for an entertaining spectacle, from the cyclist's standpoint it is a non-event. Such objects fit easily into the long, expandable, hammock-like side bags, and secure tightly with the help of the built-in adjustable straps (no additional bungee cords necessary). And as they're not especially heavy, just bulky, their weight wasn't really enough to make any impact on the Haul-a-Day's handling or speed.

In short, nothing to report here, other than the fact that such objects can be carried with the same easy abandon on the Haul-a-Day as on other long-tail Xtracycle-style systems.


Considerably more noticeable was carrying a bunch of individually unremarkable objets that added up to a lot of weight. I described the experience in detail here, but to summarise: loading the rear with 50kg of weight had a tangible effect on the bicycle's speed and handling.

The bike felt noticeably slower to accelerate on flats (although, once up to speed, it could keep rolling along fairly zippily), and required considerably lower gears to push uphill. I realised soon enough, that when using this bike heavily loaded I needed to factor in for longer travel times.

But the most challenging aspect of riding it up steep gradients in a heavily-loaded state, was that the front end would start to "wander," at times dramatically. This took me some time to get used to! But once I did, it too was manageable.

Starting on a steep hill is not something I often need to do in the course of my commutes (rural area = no stop lights!), unless I deliberately stop the bike for some reason. But on occasion it does happen, and so with the Haul-a-Day I did it deliberately a few times just to see how it would go. Admittedly, getting the heavily loaded bike rolling from a dead stop on a steep gradient took some nerve. The front-end weaving was in full effect, and I just basically had to convince myself to keep pushing until the bike felt stable. Which I did. And it did.

None of this is at all unusual or surprising when it comes to carrying this much weight, all concentrated in the rear of a bike. And the Haul-a-Day is not immune to such effects.


Performance: Distance

Although I often also make shorter trips through the day, my typical commutes are 7-12 miles in distance, each way, over rolling hills, with some fairly steep gradients thrown in.

On my request, the Haul-a-Day I received to test was set up with upright handlebars - to give it the comfort of a casual utility bike, but with a wide 3x8 gear range, including a sub-1:1 gear ratio. In this configuration the Haul-a-Day performed on par with some of the faster, lighter, and more nimble utility bikes I have tried. It wasn't unusually fast compared to a typical upright bike. But, despite its long size and small wheels, it wasn't any slower either. Unless I rode it loaded up with a great deal of weight, I basically would not know I was riding a cargo bike. This, in combination with its smooth and cushy ride quality over rough roads, made for an exceedingly pleasant and relaxing ride through the rural countryside.

And as far as the rate of swallowing miles, I got the distinct feeling, that the limiting factor was not the Haul-a-Day's cargo-bikeness, but its upright position. Had I requested to set this bike up with drop bars, I suspect my experience would have been considerably different.


Performance: Wind

At no time was this feeling stronger than during windy conditions. I have whined about this before, but basically this year has been the windiest year since my move to Ireland, with winds of over 20mph all through the day not being uncommon. Over the winter this became such a frequent occurrence, that I simply wasn't able to commute on an upright bike at all for a couple of months. And even though such days became less frequent by the time I received the bike in May, they still happened occasionally. And, lovely as it was, the Haul-a-Day set up with upright handlebars was not immune to the wind, the ride quickly turning from a pleasant glide to a snail-paced torture session whenever the wind would pick up.

I quickly realised, therefore, that if I wanted a cargo bike I could ride every day no matter what the condition, while continuing to live in the northwest of Ireland (the windiest part of the country!), it would have to be set up with drop bars.

Performance: Hills

My biggest fear of disappointment with the Haul-a-Day was in terms of how it would climb. In practice, however, this proved to be a non-issue. When loaded with the fairly modest amount of weight I would typically carry on the bike, it was almost disappointingly easy to tackle the 14%+ grades I encounter in the course of my transport cycling. The gearing the bicycle came with felt more than sufficient. I never felt the need to stand out of the saddle. And I did not find myself wishing for motor assist.

On the several occasions when I carried a truly heavy load at the rear, the bicycle did lose its momentum much easier at any hint of an incline and required considerably lower gears to propel up long hills comfortably. Even then, however, I never experienced "running out of gears" to the point where I had to walk, stand up, or even feel sufficiently strained to curse at the bike half-heartedly. As mentioned already, the front-end weaving uphill of the heavily loaded bike did take me some getting used to. But get used to it I did, and it eventually just became part of its personality.

As a cyclist already accustomed to long distance, hilly commutes - I found the Bike Friday Haul-a-Day, loaded with up to 50kg of weight, to be quite manageable. It was reassuring to learn that a cargo bike exists that is very much compatible with my requirements without requiring e-assist.  However, should I ever decide to order a Haul-a-Day for myself, I believe it would be a must to set it up with drop bars, owing to the wind factor.


Handling

Aside from the aspects of performance covered above, I enjoyed the way the Haul-a-Day handled in terms of its maneuverability, especially in combination with the way it rolled over unpaved terrain. Despite being a long tail cargo bike, the small wheeled Haul-a-Day rode like a nimble, maneuverable machine, taking tight corners easily and feeing "unfellably" stable, even for someone with comparatively poor balance skills, such as myself.

Ride Quality

Another thing I cannot praise enough, is this bicycle's luxurious ride quality. Having only tried one other Bike Friday before, which was the One Way Tikit, I can say that the Haul-a-Day is a completely different animal. And I don't think this is due to the fat tyres alone. It is likely that the extended frame and the more rearward location of the back wheel, provides additional dampening benefits. Whatever combination of factors is responsible for it, they definitely got the cush factor spot on with this model, which makes it a pleasure to ride over roads of any quality and texture.

Fit

I have covered this in my initial post about the bike, but an important thing I would be remiss not to revisit, is fit. Because the Haul-a-Day's handlebars, seatpost and frame are adjustable, the fit can be dialed in just so. I was able to get very comfortable on this bike without compromise, which is atypical of my usual experience with both cargo bikes and small wheeled bikes (my one complaint about my Brompton is the fit.)

The small-wheel "unitube" construction also means the Haul-a-Day has an exceptionally low stepover, making it convenient to mount and dismount regardless of what I am wearing and how high my cargo sits at the rear. This too was greatly appreciated, adding to the bicycle's overall accessibility.

Frame Flex

There are those who hate sensing any amount of frame flex on a cargo bike, and believe that, ideally, the bike should feel very stiff, even under heavy loads. If you belong to this category, you might find that the Haul-a-Day flexes more than you like when loaded to 50% capacity or more. Me, I'll take a bit of flex rather than ride a bike that feels "overbuilt" or "dead." Basically, I have a high tolerance for frame flex if it does not feel as if it saps my energy. And the Haul-a-Day's flex, when I felt it at all, was well within my range of acceptable.


The Fun Factor!

Finally, it needs to be said that, despite its ability to carry serious cargo, the Haul-a-Day also simply felt like a fun bike to mess around on - whether to race over grassy fields full of rabbit holes, or to steer though the woods. In that respect alone it is certainly the most enjoyable cargo bike I have tried to date. The half or dozen or so others who've tried it while the bike was in my position had a blast riding it as well, commenting on how much "easier" the bike was to ride than they had expected.

Comparisons to the Xtracycle Radish (RIP)

Since this review is ultimately an outcome of my lamenting the discontinuation of the Xtracycle Radish, it seems only fair to comment on how the two compare. The Haul-a-Day in fact feels very similar to the way I remember the Radish: particularly in its speed, rear-carry capacity, "unfellable" stability, and nimble handling. However, the Haul-a-Day also has several additional features that appeal to me. Specifically, these are:

. ultra-low stepover
. greater maneuverability owing to the small wheels
. adjustable fit of the frame
. compact size and comparatively light weight
. frame-mounted front carrier

Were I in the market for a new cargo bike today, I would choose the Haul-a-Day, even if the Radish model was still available.


Criticisms 

The complaints I have managed to accumulate in my two months with this bicycle are mostly minor. But in the interest of fairness, here they are:

This may seem like an odd thing to bring up, but I found the carry platforms too shiny. The polished metal used is highly reflective, especially in direct sunlight, which soon began to irritate my light-sensitive eyes. This became a problem especially with the front platform once I removed the basket - since I had no choice but to look at it as I cycled. Had this been my personal bike, I would have to keep that platform covered with some sort of cloth at all times, or else replace it with a wooden one.

Bike Friday Haul-a-Day

In terms of aesthetics, I am not a fan of the standard selection of colours. The colours, despite their friendly names, are all rather harsh, industrial shades that bring to mind a selection of electrical tape in a hardware store, or road safety signage. Together with the geometrical truss-like construction of the Haul-a-Day's frame, they give the bike an overly technical, utilitarian look. Which is fantastic if you like that sort of thing. But for those of us who prefer bicycles with a softer, cuddlier, more muted aesthetic, the only way to go is custom colour (and twine, lots of twine!) - which is possible, but costs more and involves a longer wait.

While I understand this aesthetic might be a deliberate reference to the Haul-a-Day being a practical work machine, I daresay injecting it with a little romance wouldn't hurt.


But perhaps a more serious point to raise, is that the Haul-a-Day did not strike me as optimised for prolonged outdoor storage in harsh environments. While I kept the bicycle indoors overnight, the nature of my lifestyle and work rhythm means I am often out all day in the elements. And when I'm out all day, the bike is out with me - leaning against a fence here, locked to a gate there, as I go about my day. In short, the Haul-a-Day spent quite a bit of its time with me outdoors, being left for hours at a time in humid, salty air conditions, not infrequently under lashing rain. And after two months of this, hints of surface rust began to creep up here and there. I wonder in retrospect whether I should have treated the Haul-a-Day more like a roadbike than a bullet-proof utility bike.

Aside from these things, it is truly difficult to think of issues that are inherent to the Haul-a-Day model, as opposed to the specific configuration I chose. As mentioned already, the upright handlebars were (rather predictably, to be fair) not ideal for windy conditions, but the bike can be easily configured with drop bars. Likewise, on my personal bike I think I'd prefer v-brakes, compact gearing, and a different style of shifters (not a fan of the twist shifter) - which are easy changes to request, and I believe are available as standard options.

Bike Friday Haul-a-Day

Speaking of options. While the Haul-a-Day is available in several standard colour and build configurations, they can also basically do any custom build you want, within reason. There is so much variety in fact, that I have received a few reader requests to spec this bike as I'd have it built for myself, just to see what that would do to the almost too good to be true "starting at $1,190 USD" price tag. So I asked Bike Friday to indulge me in this exercise, and they graciously complied.

My requested build specs:

. custom colour
. v-brakes
. mudguards
. double-legged kickstand
. drop handlebars
. SRAM Apex drivetrain with compact double and sub 1:1 gearing
. front platform
. rear cargo bags
. rear side supports
. dynohub front wheel
. front and rear dynamo lighting

As of June 2016 the price for this hypothetical build was estimated at $2,340.50.

The estimate assumes custom built wheels with a Shimano Alfine DH-S501 dynamo hub, and B&M Lumotec IQ Fly Senso Plus/ Secula Plus dynamo lighting. It certainly increases the "starting at" standard build pricetag. However, considering what is included, I believe it is quite reasonable for a "performance" cargo bike with quality dynamo lighting.

Typical lead time for a build is currently 6 weeks. On occasion there is also an inventory of stock bikes available which have a turnaround of 2-3 weeks.


Since my move to Ireland, I have managed to survive 3 years without a cargo bike. Nevertheless, when the time came to send the Haul-a-Day back, I began to suddenly panic and wonder how I would  ever make do without it. It's funny, how having a cargo bike around can actually change the way we do stuff - from the way we structure shopping trips, to the extent to which we rely on deliveries vs pick things up ourselves. Now that the Haul-a-Day has been gone for over a month, I am again weaned off cargo-bike-reliance (hah!) and can think with a clear head as to whether, and when, I would like to own one again. It is not realistic this year, but something to consider down the road for sure. And after my experience with the Bike Friday Haul-a-Day, I have no doubt that it would do the job splendidly, no matter the terrain and distance.

The Bike Friday Haul-a-Day is far from a compromise between a cargo bike and a small wheeled bike. It is not even the best of both worlds, but, rather, more than the sum of its parts - with a degree of versatility, accessibility, and performance that goes above and beyond what either category typically offers.

With profuse thanks to Bike Friday for this opportunity (it is a huge pain in the longtail to ship bicycles from the US and back, but they persevered!), I shall bring this lengthy review to a close. Nevertheless, I am sure there is all sorts of crucial information I've missed. If you have specific questions, please ask in the comments - and thank you, as always, for reading!


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Posted by Fred Clark

Both Ryan Lochte's clumsy cover story and the media's initial credulous acceptance of it reveal our willingness to assume the worst about South America as opposed to our more civilized society here in the "real" America. That's ironic when we remember what happened when the Olympic Games were hosted here in America, in Atlanta, in 1996. A bomb planted by a right-wing, anti-abortion terrorist killed one spectator and injured 111 others.

Guys like us, we had it made …

Aug. 18th, 2016 08:52 pm
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Posted by Fred Clark

If you ask those of us who are 18-53 years old for our opinions about what life was like before we either existed or have any memory, we'll give you an answer. And that speculative, possibly even informed, opinion may mean something or other in the aggregate. Maybe it tells us something fuzzy about general optimism or pessimism. Or maybe something about the dismal state of history, social studies, civics and science education.

Bright Red Walker

Aug. 18th, 2016 08:56 am
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Posted by Dave Hingsburger

She was having a bit of a difficult time. Her walker, a bright red one, was brand new, and she kept bumping into things as she tried to get around. She took it in all good spirits and, in fact, was singing quietly along to the 'I'm Just a Teenager in Love' era of music playing in the breakfast hall. I was sitting just inside the door waiting for room to get in.
\
Two women were waiting for toast and watching the older woman, with her new walker, as she got around. They noticed her happy demeanour and her her quietly singing along with the music as she gathered her breakfast. In an almost angry voice, one said, "I sure don't know what she's got to be happy about?" Her friend responded, in full out anger, "And she sure has nothing to sing about."

They were angry.

Their response to seeing a woman, happily going about her day, happily getting used to a walker, was anger. Think about it. Anger.

Were they angry because she was upsetting their stereotype that she should be all depressed and ready to call for the euthanasia bus because she needed to use a mobility devise?

Were they angry because she dared to be happy, to sing, to have chosen a bright red walker, when disability needs to be approached with somber tones, dark furrowed brows and DNRs?

Think about it again. They were angry.

What the hell in that picture is there to be angry about. She never bumped them with her walker and her inexperience. She took up a little more space because of that inexperience but there was space to be had. I was waiting, not because of her, but because others don't know how to handle space when someone in it uses a mobility devise.

Finally, I got in, I rolled by her, stopped and said, "Love that colour of red." She smiled broadly, it was a smile that looked like it had been given a million times in a million different circumstances throughout her life. "It's jaunty, isn't it?" she said. I laughed and said, "Very."

She's lived a happy life. It came so easily to her to simply continue to be happy, even on wheels.

The others seeing me and her chatting and laughing, it must have been too much because they simply grabbed their toast and fled to their table.

I'd rather, any day of the week, have a little song, and a big smile be part of my breakfast rather than sit down into anger to begin my day.

They were angry!!

Angry.
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Posted by chinookjargon

This looks like quite good Chinook Jargon information (it might help answer a recent question about how Scandinavians pronounced their CJ), but I’ll need a friend to translate it from this Swedish:

The example phrases are the giveaway that this article is based on Horatio Hale’s important U.S. Exploring Expedition report of 1846.

Here is a poorly OCR’ed grab of the text:

Rudolf Wickberg: Ett blandspråk i nordamerikanska western. I

Det språk, som talas af de i Förenta Staternas vester kring Columbiafloden boende Chinook-indianerna, lär vara så svårt, att främlingar sällan inhemta detsamma. Behofvet af ett meddelelsemedel mellan å ena sidan dessa indianer och å. den andra engelsk- och fransk-talande jägare och köpmän har emellertid gifvit upphof till ett i flere afseenden märkligt blandspråk, den s. k. Ckinook-jargonen. Dennas material, som helt naturligt blott omfattar uttryck för det alldagliga lifvets enkla förhållanden, utgöres af omkring 250 enkla ord, som hemtats ur de olika språken i följande proportion:

Ckinook-språket: omkring 100 (60 nämen, 33 pronominal-ord, 5 verb, l nomen-verb). Ex. мыши (fågel), kanëm (kanot), kwék-kwek (onomatcp. = and), müs-müs (buffel), nüa (moder), pïlpïl (blod, röd), siks (vän), врак (blå).

 

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n, e, eng. j utbytts mot resp. t, р, k, l, w, s, tsj. _ Det franska näsljudet har bortfallit eller blifvit n. Ex. ses i de engelska och franska länorden. Sprákbyggnaclen är, sâsom man kan vänta, af enklaste slag. Inga ningar firmas. Undnntngsvis uppträder Chinook-sprâkets plur.-änd. -uks i det stelnade ordet Pasat-aks == fransmän. För öfrigt utmärkes plur. ofte genom kata = mänga. _ I allmänhet ingen artikel; stundom doek Chin. ökok (denne). _ Genetiv-fórhällandet uttryckes genom ordfóljden, t. ex. kata nem тайга papa? = ’hvad är din faders пашп?’ — Komparativen uttryckes genom omskrifning sälunda: zoek matka skukam kakwa naz’ka = ’icke du stark som jeg’, d. ä. ’jeg är sterkere ¿in du’. _ Snperlativen omskrifves med adverb: harias claman okok kanem = ’(mycket ватты) äldst (är) den kanoten’. Äfven genom sterkere betoning kan begreppet förstärkas: hates (med längt utdragen slutstafvelse) = ’utomordentligt ster’. _ I räkneorden räder decimal-systemet. _ Intet relativ-pronomen: kah okok samön тай/ш wawa [си/ара naz’ka = 7hvilken den lax du telar (от) för luigip7 Stnndom användes dock fräge-pronomen säsom sädant: шей; naz’ka kömataks ¿kata matka wawa = ’ej jeg Готы hvad du säger’. _ Olika tempus uttryckas, om sä behöfves, genom adverb. Stundom bildas dock futurum genom omskrifning med t’il’kéh = önska: naz’ka papa t-ukeh memelast = ’min fader skall dö’. _ Intet verb ’vara7 ñnnes. _ Endast en preposition: kwápa eller kwapá (= till, for, vid, i o. s. и), men äfven denne kan i allmänhet utelemnas. _ Vilkorskonjunktion är pos = eng. suppose. Esatas Tegnér: De semtttska sprakens attryck för begreppet son,


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